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教师资格考试英语语法-定语从句

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定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫作先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,它的作用:一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用;二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。

1.关系代词的用法

(1)作主语用who,which和that。例:

He is the man who / that lives next door.

The train which / that has just left is for Shenzhen.

(2)作宾语用whom,who,which,that。例:

The man (whom / who / that) we have just seen is a famous writer.

Where is the book (which / that) I bought last week?

(3)作定语用whose。例:

He is the man whose car was stolen last week.

It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at that time.

(4)作表语只用that,它既可以指人,也可以指物,但时常省略。例:

He is no longer the man that he used to be.

This is no longer the dirty place (that) it used to be.

2.关系副词

(1)关系副词的用法

① when 指时间,在从句中作时间状语,它的先行词通常有:

time,day,morning,night,week,year

例:I still remember the time when I first became a college student.

Do you know the date when Lincoln was born?

② where指地点,在从句中作地点状语,它的先行词通常有:

place,spot,street,house,room,city,town,country等

例:This is the hotel where they are staying.

I forget the house where the Smiths lived.

③ why指原因或理由,它的先行词只有:

reason

例:That is the reason why he is leaving so soon.

3.连接词只用that的情况

(1)先行词为all,everything,anything,nothing,little,much等不定代词。

(2)先行词被all,any,every,each,much,little,no,some,few等修饰时。

(3)先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时。

(4)先行词既指人又指物时。

(5)先行词被the only,the very修饰时。

(6)句中已经用who或which时,为了避免重复。

4.连接词只用which/ who/ whom的情况

(1)在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which指代物,用who / whom指人。

(2)在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,只能用which指物(“介词+ which”一般在定语从句中分别作时间、地点、原因状语,于是“介词+ which”可以分别用when / where / why代替),whom指人。

(3)先行词本身是that时,关系词用which,先行词为those / one / he时多用who。

5.定语从句注意事项

(1)whose的先行词指物时,可用of which代替,但词序不同,即whose+名词=the +n. + of which=of which + the + n.

He lives in the room whose window faces south.

= He lives in the room,the window of which faces south.

=He lives in the room,of which the window faces south.

(2)当point,situation,case,condition,stage (阶段)等词作先行词表示“情况、境地、场合”等意思时,用where引导定语从句,where在句中作状语。例:

I’ve come to the point where I can’t stand him.

(3)先行词是the way,意为“方式,方法”时,引导定语从句的关系词用that / in which或省略。例:

I didn’t like the way (that / in which) she talked to me.

【典型例题】

--- Where did you see the movie Life of Pi directed by Ang Lee?

---- It was in the cinema _____ I regularly go.

A. which B. that C. where D. what

【答案】C。解析:考查强调句型的省略和定语从句。句意:---你在哪里看的由李安导演的电影“少年派的奇幻漂流记”呢?---是在我经常去的电影院里。此题往往会误认为是强调句型而选B,但是把句子回答完整的话应该是it was in the cinema ____ I regularly go that I saw the movie Life of Pi directed by Ang Lee,是省略了和前面句子的相同成分,即强调句型的省略,所以从结构上判断cinema后面是定语从句,句子为主谓结构,缺少状语,应该选关系副词,四个选项中只有C选项where为关系副词,故选C。

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